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Brief Comments on Goguen: Q4 2020, Q1 2021, utility, Marlowe, DSL, Glow, Plutus, IELE, smart contracts, thanksgiving to you, sidechains and Hydra, Goguen rollout and additions to product update
Binance Support Number (+𝟏) 445*𝟗𝟎0*1𝟒𝟐𝟓 ♚ USA Help Phone
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AMA Recap of CEO and Co-founder of Chromia, Henrik Hjelte in the @binancenigeria Telegram group on 03/05/2020.
THE ABILITY TO VENTURE DOWN A WHOLE BUNCH OF RABBIT HOLES IN PARALLEL IS THE ETHEREUM COMMUNITY'S STRENGTH!!!1!
"Where else do you see as many parallel tracks like sharding, PoS, Plasma, generalized state channels, optimistic rollup, ZK rollup, stablecoins, DAOs all happening at the same time?" Had to share this as the original post was downvoted and many will miss it. Here is Vitalik's response to 12 pages of criticism by "Checkmatey " As posted here Why ETH Won't Sustain a Monetary Premium vbuterin: I hear quite often this opinion that having a present 21M limit is really really important, and that Ethereum should adopt it if it wants to stand a chance at getting any SoV status. And yet, when I've asked people in the ethereum community how important it is (I asked this most publicly at the "Controversial Questions" panel at EDCON 2019 in Sydney), the response is typically "eh, not that big a deal". Ethereum people seem to by and large value pragmatism and assign less importance to trying to have commitments that we publicly pretend are infinitely strong (but in reality are quite malleable, as we discovered in the Binance rollback crisis when I was surprised to learn that maximalist ideology now does NOT consider even multi-day reversions of the chain to be violations of "immutability"). And there's a good reason for not publicly committing to no possibility of retreat from a fixed issuance formula, and that reason is this. There is an unavoidable tradeoff between stability of issuance level and stability of security level. This is simple to see. You need to pay miners (or in PoS validators) to secure the chain, and the security level is roughly proportional to how many of those you attract, which is roughly proportional to how well you pay them. Payment to miners/validators equals issuance + transaction fees. Hence, if issuance is zero, the security level depends on the level of transaction fees, which is quite volatile. So if you want a guarantee of security, then you have to admit the possibility that if transaction fees are low during some period of time then you will have issuance. Ethereum does not have less stability than bitcoin; rather, it chooses stability of level of security over stability of issuance, and given how tiny an impact a 0.5% change in issuance will actually have on anyone's fortunes it should be clear that this is the correct choice.
Ultimately, this burning mechanism is of greatest benefit to current ETH holders and is to the detriment of holders and users in the future.
Huh? What is the evidence for this? This was just asserted without any argument backing up the idea that there is a detriment to anyone.
One can only conclude that the monetary policy of Ethereum is relatively fluid and influenced by people rather than code. This uncertainty reflects an un-sound monetary policy (subject to human tampering) and instils a defendable perception of centralised governance.
Given how central fees are to bitcoin's long-term security narrative, and how central (i) block size changes like segwit, and in the future sig compression via schnorr and (ii) layer 2 protocols like LN, are to fee levels, can't you argue that the security policy of Bitcoin is relatively fluid and influenced by people rather than code?
Narratives have shifted from world computer, to unstoppable dAPPS, to token issuance and now to open finance applications.
Shifted? As far as I can tell, narratives were rarely subtracted, mostly new ones added. And that's what you should expect for a general purpose technology.
Furthermore, the ETH 2.0 beacon chain very much resembles Bitcoin by design, handling consensus and global state only with applications and bloat pushed to shards (sidechains or L2+ in Bitcoin’s case).
This author needs to understand the concept of tight coupling to see why shards are not like sidechains. That claim is as incorrect as claiming that the bitcoin block is a sidechain to bitcoin headers.
Whilst the Open finance ecosystem presents impressive technological and engineering successes, there remains a lingering risk of over reliance on third party protocols for value accrual to the ETH token.
Yes, general purpose technology requires at least one application to succeed. We know that. BTW ETH itself being used for payments is also a totally reasonable application, and has not been denounced.
A relatively centralised governance and an unsound monetary policy with signs this will only deteriorate in time.
Once again bare assertion with no evidence. How do we know that the monetary policy and governance will only deteriorate over time when all evidence suggests (i) issuance only going down, not up, and (ii) DAO-like forks becoming more difficult, not less?
Ethereum has historically required more specialised, high performance hardware for the operation of nodes. This is generally a result of a larger scope of transactions and heavier demand on block-space from Turing Completeness.
Actually it's largely because of IO issues, which will be solved by stateless clients.
The author challenges readers to consider how far advanced Bitcoin is in achieving the goals of digital, sound, immutable money whilst Ethereum has ventured down numerous dead end rabbit holes.
THE ABILITY TO VENTURE DOWN A WHOLE BUNCH OF RABBIT HOLES IN PARALLEL IS THE ETHEREUM COMMUNITY'S STRENGTH!!!1! Where else do you see as many parallel tracks like sharding, PoS, Plasma, generalized state channels, optimistic rollup, ZK rollup, stablecoins, DAOs all happening at the same time? I would even argue that the frame that there must be a single dominant application narrative is one that we should reject; instead, the Ethereum community should be proud of its own great internal diversity.
Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with ablockchainnetwork structure, a notion first created byStuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.
Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).
In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW). The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer. Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs. As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”). Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so. With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic. Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.
The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979. With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”). An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below. https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d
Block time and mining difficulty
Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty. Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly. Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.
What are orphan blocks?
In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency. It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency. Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted. The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network. However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.
3. Bitcoin’s additional features
Segregated Witness (SegWit)
Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017. SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin. SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become. https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit. Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade. Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values. For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890. Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid. This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID. Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.
Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability. Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins. Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ. A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here. In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions. Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel. https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8 One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel. However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.
Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain. https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4 However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys. This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block. https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually. Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.
4. Economics and supply distribution
The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years. As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
Top 7 unique, high-potential cryptocurrencies of 2019 that are actually innovating the space
Right now, the top 20 has 2 forks of Bitcoin, Tether, an exchange's token, Ethereum Classic, and a few other projects that make this space look far less serious than it really is. On the other hand, you have many great projects out of the top 20 with huge potential going forward. The purpose of this post is to discuss the cryptocurrencies that I believe are exciting, different, and already have (or are extremely close to having) a working project. These are the projects that actually keep my faith alive in crypto among all the other BS out there. I'm hoping to outline a few projects you know, as well as some smaller ones. I will exclude Bitcoin, Ethereum, and XRP from this list, as everyone knows them already and what they do. This is NOT MEANT TO BE AN ALL-INCLUSIVE LIST - that means I'm definitely missing some projects. However, these are some of the projects I believe will make seriously large contributions to the space going forward. 1 - Nano. Reddit already shills the hell out of this coin, and it's for good reason. Nano is the single fastest and cheapest (100% free) P2P digital currency in the space, period. There's something to be said about sending somebody 50 Nano and them receiving EXACTLY 50 Nano, not 49.999 or something similar. Nano is an actual innovation in the space, with a very different codebase than other coins. It uses a block lattice (instead of using a blockchain), which is an incredible invention, and is reminiscent of the kind of innovation that ETH first offered for blockchain applications in 2015 - but for digital cash. Nano feels like what Bitcoin should have been from Day 1. Download the mobile app/create a web wallet and send some back and forth between the two - you'll understand why people are so bullish on this coin once you've tried it out for yourself. 2 - Monero. If any coin most clearly resembles the fungibility and privacy of using physical cash, it's Monero. It's the only major coin that is fully private by default, 100% of the time. The recent updates over the past few months have made Monero extremely cheap and fast to use, and if you haven't tried it out, I'd highly recommend it (MyMonero's web wallet is excellent https://wallet.mymonero.com). There's no denying this coin's potential to shape the space in the future as the top privacy coin. Monero has also proven to be highly resistant to bear trends, holding its price better than nearly every other top 40 coin in the last bear market. Lastly, the team is extremely competent and makes real innovations to this coin - between making transactions fully private, cost reduction/speed upgrades, and forking away from ASIC mining, this team has proven that they are little talk, ALL action, and committed to constantly improving this cryptocurrency.
Augur - This decentralized betting platform was one of the first Ethereum dapps ever planned, and took nearly 3 years to come to fruition. It is one of the most well-made, useful dapps running on Ethereum right now and has real users making markets every single day. You can bet on pretty much anything using Augur, and it's actually completely decentralized - meaning no third parties or governments who are unhappy with the content or types of bets being placed - can shut this dapp down. It does have a few issues for sure, but I am confident that they are minor and will be resolved in time as this market continues to mature.
IOTA - No matter what you think of this coin, IOTA's tangle is undeniably different. It's DAG-like technology is refreshing to see in a space where 98% of coins are just clones/forks of other coins - even if it doesn't work the way it should yet. It's possible that the removal of blocks and instead creating a tangle of transactions where every node in the network helps to power future transactions could allow for scaling beyond what current blockchains offer.
BitTorrent - I really hesitated to list this one. Do I agree with the way Justin Sun markets and overhypes every small meeting or minor project development? Of course not. However, there is no denying that this token will expose a TON of new users to cryptocurrency for the first time - arguably more than any other dapp token. BitTorrent, the application, is already being used by millions of users, and there's no denying that. This is a rare situation and no other cryptocurrency dapp has anywhere near the user count that this BitTorrent has. While I don't love Tron in general... it is largely an Ethereum clone with few advantages other than added hype...BTT is guaranteed to at least see some real-world usage and it might be good to own a few tokens.
Upfiring - If you like the idea that BitTorrent is putting forth (rewarding seeders), Upfiring is that exact idea - but their dapp is literally already out and nobody knows about it yet. I hesitated to list this project due to the low market cap, but it just might be one of the most useful dapps out there and one of the best uses of smart contracts. The dapp is awesome - super sleek and easy to use. In terms of high potential projects, this one is huge with around a 2 million USD market cap and really could explode at any time imo. You can download their dapp right now and share files on the blockchain, set a price in UFR for your files and earn crypto when others download them. Torrenting is one of the areas that I believe crypto will make a big impact in, since rewarding seeders is an excellent use-case to incentivize file-sharing. With an ATH of 40 million, it has reached 20x the current market cap before, so the price and hype level is currently low.
Major projects to watch out for due to being overvalued or other significant red flags (please don't downvote this post if you disagree with these - instead, let us know why you disagree in the comments): 1 - Litecoin. I'd certainly agree it should be in the Top 50 due to its fame status, but the #4 position is ridiculously high for a coin like this. Put simply, there is simply no major use case for this coin. If you wanted to use something as cash, Nano and even Bitcoin Cash are arguably both better options. At least Bitcoin serves as the standard for markets on exchanges. Remember that the creator of this coin has literally sold all of it as well - while arguably a smart move on his part, it's something to keep in mind. 2 - Binance Coin. Regardless of the fact that it is Binance, and Binance is great, this coin's entire value is based on a 100% CENTRALIZED business. That's a big deal. This means if something ever happens to Binance, for whatever reason, BNB's value will directly be affected as a result. In addition, a 4.5 BILLION dollar market cap for an exchange token is just a ridiculous market cap in general, even if it is Binance. Props to Binance for making this token so successful, though. 3 - Stellar. This is a big one, and I know I'm going to take some heat for listing this, so let me clarify. I really like what Stellar is doing with payments, for sure, but one thing that makes that all null and void from an investment standpoint - Stellar's team owns over 80% of the entire Stellar coin supply. Let that sink in for a second. 19,331,690,041 XLM is circulating among every single Stellar holder, while the team themselves holds 85,710,809,041 XLM. People tend to ignore this fact for some reason, but it's unfortunately a huge deal and requires that you put a ton of trust in Stellar's team not to casually sell millions of dollars worth of their XLM whenever they want more money. How would you feel if Vitalik owned 400,000,000 ETH? That's the same ratio to what the Stellar team owns. There's also been a ton of sketchy things that have happened with the team selling off millions of dollars worth of coins in 2017/early 2018 - you can search those in the search bar to read up on those incidents where users here tracked those transactions. Lastly, Stellar is a fork of Ripple. Not that this is a bad thing necessarily, but it's something to keep note of. 4 - Bitcoin SV. Yeah, it's pumping right now. Who cares, so are lots of coins. Ignore it, and maybe it will go away. This coin once again serves no real purpose and has no place being the #8 cryptocurrency with how many great projects are sitting below it. 5 - Ethereum Classic. This coin has already been 51% attacked SUCCESSFULLY, and it's value has gone up since then. In addition, no changes have been made to the coin to prevent such an attack in the future, and none are planned. No hard forks will happen to improve this coin, ever...that's because Ethereum Classic's main value proposition is immutable and irreversible transactions, Ironic - because the 51% attack showed that transactions on this chain are actually the exact opposite of this. Obviously, this coin should be avoided. And before you ask, why did I leave out... -Cardano: Interesting project but too far away from releasing their smart contracts to mention in this post. In addition, market cap is extremely high for not having a working product out yet -Tron: A hyped-version of Ethereum with few differences. Not necessarily bad, but not innovative enough to mention from a technological standpoint. I won't comment on their marketing tactics... -Vechain: It remains to be seen whether this use-case will ever play out using a public blockchain like this with real businesses. Certainly one to keep an eye on, but as of right now it's not being used on any sort of large scale -Qtum: Still has yet to find a real niche over projects like Ethereum, Tron, and EOS -EOS: Raised billions of dollars in their ICO but their platform still has many issues. There are some decent developments like Everipedia on it, but overall I decided to leave it out due to once again, not offering anything THAT innovative to the space, and the lack of decentralization (EOS team can freeze transactions) I'll update the top list as well if anyone provides me with good projects that I may have missed out on here!
Re-Launching The Borderless, Unkillable Crypto-Fiat Gateway, DAIHard. Enter or Exit Crypto via Any Fiat and Any Payment Method, Anywhere in the World, Without KYC. All you need is a little Dai.
Some of you might recall recall our initial facepalm failed launch about 3 months ago (post-mortem here). Well, we're back--this time with an audit and some new features. This version of DAIHard should should die a little harder this time ;)
After shopping around a bit in the auditor space, we decided to go with Adam Dossa--the very same Adam Dossa that actually found our launch vulnerability and responsibly disclosed it to us! You can see his report here. By the way, Adam has been a gem: friendly, professional, timely, and flexible. Definitely keep him in mind if you need an audit!
Following is an updated version of our original launch post. If you've already read that, you might want to skip to the heading What's New in v0.9.2. Or you can go straight to the app or go to our info site for more info! Here is a legitimate concern most of us are familiar with:
To enter or exit the crypto economy, we rely on centralized exchanges such as Coinbase, which track their users, impose limits, and are tightly coupled to their jurisdiction and its banking system. And for all we know, any day now regulations could start tightening these controls further (*we've actually seen some of this play out in the two months since our first launch post). In light of this, can we say in any meaningful sense that crypto is anonymous, limtiless, borderless, immune to regulation, and (most importantly) unstoppable?
To really address this concern, we need a completely decentralized gateway between fiat and crypto: something that extends the benefits of crypto to the very act of moving between the old and new economies. But the design of such a platform is far from obvious. (Localethereum comes close, but as discussed under Unkillable, it doesn't quite cut it. And Bisq is decentralized, but has significant UX hurdles.) We believe we've found a solution. We are proud to present:
DAIHard v0.9.2 - Almost Definitely Not Broken This Time
If you want to jump right in, we recommend first watching our latest usage demo (7 min), then diving in and giving it a shot with a small amount of Dai. (Try it on Kovan first if mainnet is too scary!) DAIHard extends many of the promises of crypto (borderless, anonymous, limitless, unstoppable) into the exchange mechanism itself, allowing anyone, anywhere to bypass centralized exchanges and the control they impose. More concretely, DAIHard is a platform, run on smart contracts, for forming one-off crypto/fiat exchanges with other users, in which:
The method of fiat transfer is open-ended, but agreed upon up-front (for example: bank transfer, cash handoff, transfer of online credit, cash drop...).
You and the counterparty can communicate via end-to-end encrypted chat to coordinate the fiat transfer (i.e. communicate bank account number or reveal a cash drop location).
Crucially, in the last phase, the Seller can choose to burn the Dai instead of releasing it to the Buyer (but he can't get it back). This credible threat of burn is what makes the platform reliable in the absence of a centralized group of arbitrators or moderators. For more on this see the DAIHard Game Theory medium article (10 min read).
You Need either xDai, or both Dai and Ether, to Use The Tool (At Least For Now)
If you want to buy Dai on DAIHard, you must already have Dai--1/3 of the amount you want to purchase--to put up as a burnable deposit. For example, if you only have 10 Dai now, you can only commit to buying 30 Dai, and must complete that trade before using the newly bought Dai to open up a bigger offer (for up to 120 Dai that time). Most tragically of course, this means that if you don't already have some crypto, you can't use this tool to get crypto--this is why we avoid calling DAIHard an onramp specifically. This comes from the fact that both parties must have "skin in the game" for the game theory to work, and a smart contract can only threaten to burn crypto. We have some ideas on how to address this drawback in the not-too-distant future, which we'll write about soon. For now it's time to launch this thing and get some users!
Dangerous and Scary To Use
In rare cases, a user may have to burn Dai and face a loss on the entire trade amount. The necessity of this ever-present risk is explained in detail in DAIHard Game Theory. However, a cautious, rational user can gather information (possibly via our [subreddit](daihard)!) about how people have used the tool, successfully and unsuccessfully. They can then create a buy or sell offer with wisely chosen settings based on what has worked for others. Other cautious, rational users can find this offer and commit to the trade if they dare. We expect the vast majority of committed trades should involve rational, cautious users, and should therefore resolve happily. Still, inevitably there will be sloppy trades that result in burns. As the tool is used, we'll be keeping a close eye on the frequency of burns and keeping you guys updated (perhaps via a "System Status" utility similar to the one found on MakerDao's explorer). In the end, though, we expect the risk in using DAIHard to be comparable to the risk of using any exchange or DNM: ever-present but low enough for the platform to be useful as whole. So, while DAIHard will never shut down and can't perform an exit scam, the bad news is it's not risk-free. Users will have to approach DAIhard with the same level of caution they would with any new exchange (albeit for different reasons and with a different approach). So what's the good news?
The Good News
While these drawbacks are significant, they enable some remarkable features that no other crypto/fiat exchange mechanism can boast.
(Correction: Bisq seems to have a decentralized arbitration system) We are aware of no other crypto/fiat exchange platform that is truly unkillable. Bisq and localethereum comes close, but both localethereum relies on centralized processes of arbitration. This means their fraud-and-scam-prevention system can be sued, jailed, or otherwise harrassed--and if that part stops working, it doesn't matter how decentralized the rest of the system was. DAIHard, in contrast, gives the users the power to police and punish each other, via the aforementioned credible threat of burn. This is simple game theory, and the rules of this game are etched permanently into the DAIHard Factory and Trade contract code: impervious to litigation, regulation, and political pressure. This Factory contract has no owner and no suicide or pause code. It cannot be stopped by us or anyone else. Like Toastycoin, this thing was immortal the moment it was deployed (even more immortal than RadarRelay, for example, which does rely on an ownership role). Both DAIHard and Toastycoin (and probably whatever we build next) will last for as long as a single Ethereum node continues mining, and it will remain easy to use as long as someone can find the HTML/JS front-end and a web3 wallet. (The HTML/JS front-end (built in Elm, by the way, with the lovely elm-ethereum!) is currently hosted on Github pages, which is centralized--but even if Github takes down the page and deletes the code, it's a minor step to get the page hosted on IPFS, something that is on our near-term roadmap in any case)
No KYC, No Limits
It's smart contracts all the way down, so DAIHard never asks any nosy questions--if you have Metamask or some other web3 wallet installed and set up, with some ETH and Dai (or just xDai), you can immediately open or commit to a trade. You don't even need a username! (In fact, we're so inclusive, even machines are allowed--no CAPTCHA here!) You're limited only by the collateral you put up, so if you have 10,000 Dai you could open up a buy offer for 30,000 Dai (or a sell offer for 10,000 Dai) right now. We do reccommend trying the tool out first with a small amount of Dai... But we're not your mom! Do what you want!
It simply doesn't matter where you are, because DAIHard doesn't need to interface with any particular jurisdiction or payment system to work. DIAHard works by incentivizing people (or robots?) to navigate the particular real-world hurdles of bank transfers, cash drops, or other fiat transfer methods. These incentives work whether you're in America, Zimbabwe, or the Atlantic; they work whether the fiat is USD, EUR, ZAR, seashells, or Rai Stones; and they work whether your counterparty is a human, an organization, a script, or a particularly intelligent dog with Internet access.
Any Fiat Type, and Highly Customizeable
Here are some examples of the types of trades you might create or find on DAIHard.
Sell 5 xDai for $5 USD, sent via TransferWise.
Sell 200 Dai for $180 USD, granted they bring the cash to you by tomorrow afternoon in Central Park, NYC.
Buy 20 Dai with a $30 gift card for Amazon AWS that you were never going to use.
Sell 20 Dai in exchange for a $20 Steam game.
While in Vietnam, sell 200 Dai to someone for €180 anytime in the next two weeks, provided they deposit it into your German bank account.
While in Germany, sell 20 Dai to someone in exchange for them refilling your pre-paid Vietnamese phone plan.
Buy 500 Dai for $550 via PayPal, but wait 3 weeks for before the Dai is released (so the paypal transaction can't be reversed).
As the DAIHard community grows, users will doubtless find much more creative ways to use the system, and we will discover together which types of trades are reliable and which are more risky. Because users can set their own prices and phase timeout settings, we expect the risky trades to charge a premium or have longer time windows, while the reliable ones rapidly multiply at close to a 1:1 price ratio, with quick turnaround times.
Extensible (with profit) by Third Parties
Not satisfied with our interface? Do you have some nifty idea for how to display and organize user reputation? Or maybe some idea for how trades could be chained togeher? Maybe you'd like to design a notification system for DAIHard? Maybe you just want a different color scheme! Well, you won't need our permission to do any of this. Any tool that watches the same Factory contract will share the pool of trades, regardless of which tool actually creates the trade. This means we don't even have to fight over network effects! And if you look closely at our fee structure, you might notice that only half of the 1% DAIHard fee is "hardcoded" into the Factory contract. The other half is set and charged by our interface. What does this mean for you? If you go out and make a better interface, you can essentially replace half of our 1% fee with your own fee--it's up to you whether it's smaller or larger than the replaced 0.5%. The reason for this is to explicitly welcome other developers to extend what we've built. For as long as our team is the only one improving the platform, a threat to us is a threat to future upgrades. But if others begin extending the DAIHard platform too, then DAIHard will not only be unstoppable as it is today, but also grow unstoppably.
(For Real This Time) This Is a Big Fucking Deal
DAIHard is a turning point in crypto and a breakthrough in decentralized markets, and is an irreversible augmentation of the Ethereum platform. What we've built is a gateway to crypto completely devoid of centralized components--rendering entry and exit to crypto unkillable, flexible, borderless, and private. Centralized exchanges, and the control they impose, can now be bypassed by anyone with Dai and a web3 wallet.
What's New in v0.9.2
There have been many changes made since our first failed launch, but there are two rather important ones: xDai support and reputation tools.
DAIHard is now operational on xDai, a sidechain whose native token (xDai) is pegged to the Dai (and therefore $1). Add the xDai network to your Metamask (or just install Nifty Wallet), then switch to the xDai network in your wallet, to try it out. xDai has some pretty incredible benefits, compared to vanilla Ethereum:
Price: On xDai, a single DAIHard trade costs on the order of $0.01 to run start-to-finish, rather than the accumulated $2.40 (with the best-case-scenario 1gwei gas price) you'll spend on vanilla Ethereum.
Speed: Trade actions mine much faster, and don't require ERC20 'approve' transactions, making the whole process way snappier.
Gas priced in xDai: the main benefit here is that you only need one token (xDai) rather than two (Dai and Eth). Also, it's just nice having the gas cost expressed in (essentially) USD!
We now have a few reputation tools. First, on any open trade, there is a widget showing the number of releases, aborts, and burns the given address has been involved in as that role (buyer or seller). Clicking on this expands the widget to show more detailed information, and also provides a link to a page that lists each trade this user has been or is involved in.
We have tons of ideas on how to improve the product--too many, in fact, to commit to any before we get a good chunk of user feedback. Here are some of our favorite ideas:
A "QuickTrade" page, offering Trade Templates as an alternative to the current Create Offer page.
Big Exciting Features
Bootstrapping people with no DAI via other mechanisms and community outreach.
Partial commits to trades. eg. Place a 10,000 DAI trade and allow it to be picked up in blocks larger than 500 DAI at a time.
More chains, get this thing working on Bitcoin via Rootstock, on Ethereum Classic and Binance Chain.
A lot of the above features will be prioritized more clearly as we get user feedback, and we will be posting fairly frequent updates and articles on our info site. If you don't want to miss anything, note the subscribe widget and sign up!
Weekly Update: Parachute Townhall, Welcome $GET to ParJar, Uptrennd reaches 50k members, Fantom on IncognitoChain... – 6 Dec - 12 Dec'19
Hi Parachuters! As part of 2 of 3 from today's rapid catch up series of pending updates, here’s your week at Parachute + partners (6 Dec - 12 Dec'19): As mentioned last week, Cap and Ice hosted a townhall to talk about where we are at and where we are heading along with ample feedback and Q&A from the community. We covered a lot of ground: "value hypothesis for ParJar, Product Market fit, and our growth approach for 2020...performance of two key PAR utility metrics, staking and gas, and how we see growth for each in 2020...questions from the community and reviewed upcoming community initiatives". Click here to catch up on all that happened. GET Protocol’s $GET token was added to ParJar this week. Belated Birthday wishes to Doc Vic from Cuba. Jason lost a 5k $PAR wager with Cap on Victor’s age. Haha. Congratulations to Martha for winning this week’s Parena. As per the latest Fantasy Premier League (#FPL) update shared by LordHades this week, he is still ruling the charts at the top with NovelCloud and Alexis hot on his heels. From next week, "You can now view your first opponent in the 2019/20 FPL Cup on the My Team page - under Leagues". While you slay those miles with the Parachute Running Club (which has done 44 miles so far BTW), here’s a podcast to listen to. Cap’s recommendation: "It's geared towards people building products - but super super useful to think about any products you use. Skip to like 9 minutes in to skip through all the advertiesments ". Yes, I know. Cap wouldn’t be Cap without typos. Typos FTW! Parachute townhall Parachute-themed shirts designed by Doc Vic and Alejandro on Doc’s birthday. These are sick! If you want to see yourself on the Parachute world map, make sure to enter your location here. The entries are anonymous. In this week's Parachute Fantasy Football League update, Hang is in the first position followed by Clinton and Andy. Connor made it to the playoffs and is now in 4th position. So it means farewell to Nilz, Ken, Kamo and Cap from this season. CoD mobile players, don't forget to join the Parachute WarZone hosted by Doc Vic from Cuba. I hear there's $PAR and $AMGO to be won! The TTR Hat Contest ended this week with some solid entries running in the lead. Epic creation Wendell! In this week’s creative prompt by Jason, Parachuters had to “do 3 nice things for a total stranger”. Basically, be a true blue Parachuter 😊. For this week's Two-for-Tuesday, Gian made it free-for-all. No theme. Post music as you wish and win 500 $PAR. Cool! Benjamin and Charlotte hosted trivias in TTR this week. Those were loads of fun! Andy announced the start of a College Football Bowl Game Pickem contest in Parachute. 100k $PAR prize pool. Doc Vic hosted another round of Champions League wager this week in TTR. So much epicness in one picture. Jose, you are a genius! Andy's Advent Calendar journey continues Catch up on the latest aXpire update and 20k AXPR burn here and here respectively. As you would already know, instead of pitting both startups against each other, XIO decided to accept both Opacity and Uptrennd into the incubator program and opened up staking for them. This marks the official launch of the XIO Blockchain Incubator and it’s been a roaring start with USD 7k worth of tokens locked up in one hour and Opacity portal getting oversubscribed in no time. Video instructions for staking can be found here. Read up on the startups here. In three days, the total staking crossed 1M XIO levels. Insane! That is a great metric to measure performance. How does the $XIO token play a role in all this? The crew explained in this tweet thread. And with that a series of related discussions got off starting with the possibility of self-nomination for startups. Have a sub-100 CMC project that you think should be part of the incubator? Don’t forget to tag them. Plus, a cool 25k $XIO giveaway was launched. Remember, meaningful conversation is always welcome at the incubator and more often than not, they get rewarded. Check out the latest update on the Birdchain App SMS feature along with an expanded list of supported countries. Silent Notary reduced the $LAW token requirement for running a Masternode from 100M to 20M this week. Russian research company sudexpa.ru also gave its vote of confidence to Silent Notary in terms of its immutability. Wibson Marketing Manager Fi Scantamburlo attended the Latin American Bitcoin Conference Uruguay to speak on Data privacy, monetisation and how Wibson helps achieve these. Opacity now allows shared file preview for uploaded docs. Shared File Preview on Opacity Fantom's foray into the Afghan Ministry of Health's efforts to fight counterfeit drugs and other public health initiatives were covered by Forbes this week. Last week, we shared that Sikoba's e-voting platform, Itugen, which is based on Fantom’s Lachesis consensus was released. This week, they published its technical whitepaper. With so many moving parts in the project and so much happening all around, a recap is always a welcome refresher to catch up. $FTM got listed on South Korea’s Coinone with a $KRW pairing. It was also integrated with the IncognitoChain project’s pDEX with a $pUSDT pairing (remember, Harmony was added to the same platform a few days back?). IncognitoChain allows cryptos to be transacted privately using sidechains including those coins/tokens which are not privacy-oriented. Fantom also launched a developer portal and technical documentation ahead of the XAR Network mainnet release. The interoperability bridge is out as well. This allows both ERC20 and BEP2 token holders to move their tokens to the XAR Network. The wallet allows both staking and delegation. For the guide to joining XAR Network as a validator node, click here. A simple guide to staking on XAR Network can be found here. The team also sat down for an AMA with COTI this week. Blockchain Magazine’s interview of Michael was published. Continuing with Uptrennd’s 24 Days of Celebrations started last week, this week they hosted an Escape Room contest and Photo contest. The latest $1UP tokenomics update can be seen here. After 11 months, the platform now has 50k users across 177 countries. Wowza! And wicked stats on the engagement metrics as well. Jeff’s interview with Crypto Beadles came out this week. A few entries for the Uptrennd Photo Contest Click here and here for the latest District Weekly and Dev Update from District0x. In case you missed this week’s Dapp Digest, you can watch it here. Aragon fans will be in for a treat since it features Aragon Co-Founder Luis Cuende as a special guest. Remember, we had discussed last week that the Shuffle Monster Raffle had crossed a 10k $SHUF pool. Turns out it got to 13k+. Wow! The latest Hydro developer update is a comprehensive roundup from the entire ecosystem. VCC Exchange listed $HYDRO with a $BTC pairing. Hydro’s security tokenisation protocol, Hail, moved to mainnet this week. The team travelled to Boston for MassChallenge Fintech. Hydro will be hosting a Banking-as-a-Service happy hour next week to talk on how they are building solutions in the BaaS space. For starters, don’t forget to read their article on blockchain applications in finance. The team appeared for an AMA with Apache Traders which also featured a 45k $HYDRO giveaway. Digital payments platform VoPay is now partnered with Hydro for end-to-end payment solutions using Hydrogen API and other Hydro tools. Hydro’s smart contract was audited by Callisto and passed their test with flying colours except for one "low severity" issue. The result: "The contract can be deployed". CTO Tim Allard was interviewed by Ethereum Network Nigeria as part of their Ethereum personality chat series. For the latest update on the community explorer Frost, click here. In Pynk’s first guest blog post, community member (or, Pynkster) Alistaire Wallace talks about what the coming year could hold for Pynk and its community of predictors. Check out the transcript of Sentivate’s AMA with tehMoonwalkeR here. Sentivate’s new office in PA is shaping up quite well This week at OST was all about the Pepo app: from angel investor Kartik to Rocket NFT’s Alex Masmej joining the platform, accelerator The Fledge using Pepo Conversations to power community-sourced improvements to businesses, Home for the Holidays Challenge to explain crypto/blockchain to relatives (with a total USD 2k in Pepo coins in prizes) and a “best lifehack” bounty posted by Jason on the app. If you’ve missed all SelfKey news from the past month, you can catch up from the November progress report. Also, did you know that the group Legion of Doom which was once considered to be the most capable hacking group in the world was in a long drawn feud with Masters of Deception in what is now known as the Great Hacker War? Learn more info like this from SelfKey’s latest article on hacking groups. Constellation CEO Ben Jorgensen will be speaking at the Crypto 2020 Summit. If you’re attending, make sure to say Hi. Arena Match announced a trading competition on DDEX with 4M $AMGO tokens to be won. Lucky Bluff Poker will be sponsoring next week’s Arena Match Raffle. The latest Harmony update compilation from the whole team can be found here. In the latest Pangea statistics (Harmony’s experimental staking game to test the limits of its tech), the average staking position is 1.8M $ONE with 75% of participants operate nodes themselves while the rest use delegates. Plus, check out the newest upgrades here. Honest Mining announced mainnet support for the native $ONE token swap. $ONE is also in consideration for listing on Binance US. The token was listed on Pionex this week. The Intellishare website registration and login functions will be down next week for a scheduled upgrade. Also, $INE traders make sure to keep a note of WBFex temporarily disabling the $ETH trading pair. Jobchain’s $JOB token got listed on Bilaxy exchange, P2PB2B exchange, SWFT Blockchain wallet and SWOP.SPACE exchange. The project was also given an A+ score by Xangle. Congrats! And with that, it’s a wrap. See you again soon with another weekly update. Bye!
YouTube Censorship Emphasizes the Importance of Decentralization
The whole cryptocurrency community was outraged when the premier video streaming site YouTubebegan purging content created by various influential crypto-centric content creators. Reports of the purging began surfacing during the height of the holidays, which many believe was intentional to minimize pushback from the crypto community. Nonetheless, the news passed on like wild wire and soon enough caught the attention of the most influential people in the crypto space. Vitalik Buterin, the co-founder of ethereum, expressed his surprise when YouTube censored an ethereum roadmap Q&A prompting him to call on her followers to perhaps it is time to begin to look for alternatives to YouTube. A similar proclamation was made by Binance CEO Changpeng Zhao, CZ, stating that it might be high time the crypto community takes a stab at its own blockchain social media platform. Other crypto influencers have similar sentiments expressing their dismay on the development. EOS founder and Chief Technology Officer of Block.One Daniel Larimer warned of a future where technology giants will have total control of all forms of media. He cautioned that there might be a time when these technology giants will begin to dictate not only what can be shown to consumers but also what content creators can create. While Vitalik and CZ called for the exploration and creation of decentralized social media, Dan and his company are a step ahead as they are set to release the beta of their EOS-based social media platform Voice in February. The latest move of YouTube seems to have strengthened the need for the creation of a decentralized social media alternative for YouTube. A social media platform that will be equivalent to bitcoin, censorship-resistant and cannot be controlled by a single entity for its own agenda. For the past few years, a centralized social media platform has come under fire for using and selling private user information data to various interested parties. These companies earn millions from user data without them knowing it. A decentralized social media platform represents a paradigm shift from the old model where most of the profits of the platform go to the company but instead are rewarded to content creators frictionlessly through the use of cryptocurrencies. Unlike centralized social media (SM), in decentralized SM no single entity, even the developers themselves cannot just implement changes in the platform, they usually need to get the approval of the majority of the users or elected representatives of the users. More importantly, contents that have been uploaded and recorded in a decentralized social media cannot be deleted unilaterally by any single entity even the developers themselves without them having access to the private keys of the account. This makes content created in decentralized social media more censorship-resistant. While decentralization makes contents unstoppable it does not mean low-quality content cannot be policed by the community. Decentralized social media can be flagged or downvoted to be less visible but not entirely be removed. Unstoppable, censorship-resistant, transparent and inclusive these are the hallmarks of decentralization and what gives blockchain-based applications such as bitcoin and the ever-increasing number of decentralized applications its worth and value. However, the pace by which decentralized applications air increasing by the day makes the industry ever more fragmented, siloed and isolated from each other. There is a need for them to be able to interoperate or interact with each other at some level. While these decentralize applications may not be able to interoperate or interact with each other without creating new technology to bridge them together, their main mechanism for exchange of value can, through their coins and tokens. These digital assets are traded in trading venues which for the time being is dominated by centralized exchanges. Centralized exchange (CEX) are not better than traditional banks as users will have to deposit their assets, asked permission from CEX operators to withdraw their own cryptocurrency and can also be denied access. Decentralization can only be as strong as its weakest link and many believe centralized exchanges are the weakest link in the crypto community’s effort for continued decentralization. Centralized exchanges not only act like banks but are also easily targeted by hackers and government. The former for its big stash of cryptocurrency which are usually lumped together in one “honeypot” wallet and the latter to implement regulatory policies that usually run against the virtues of decentralization. The negative effects of this centralization of trading venues are evident throughout the short history of cryptocurrencies. The first decade of these burgeoning asset class is marked by hacks of major centralized exchanges that resulted in hundreds of millions worth of digital assets spirited away by hackers giving a devastating blow to cryptocurrency investors. On the other side of the spectrum, the hostile regulatory stance of countries like China and India have forced exchanges to close down locking with the investor’s money. Fortunately, cryptocurrency innovators were able to create decentralized exchanges that evolved throughout the years to be as fast, efficient and cost-effective as centralized exchange. The best part of this is the fact that these exchanges do not carry as much risk as centralized exchanges as assets never leave the custody of the trader. More importantly, there is no way the decentralized exchange or any external entity could steal or restrict access to your own money so long as traders keep their private keys safe. One of the leading decentralized exchange in the world is Newdex, a multi-chain decentralized exchange (DEX) which has been at the forefront of decentralized exchange innovation by introducing many innovative features to empower its users. It was one of the first global EOS-based DEX which evolved to a multi-chain DEX supporting EOS, TRON, and EOSIO sidechains WAX, LYNX, TELOS; one of the first to offer free CPU computing resources; and recently support the Ethereum, TRON and EOS variants of Tether (USDT), the leading Stablecoin in the whole crypto space. Beyond supporting three active blockchain forms of USDT Newdex goes the extra mile by offering its users cross-chain USDT conversion with minimal to no charges, supporting the active platforms of USDT namely, Ethereum, TRON, and EOS. Stablecoins like USDT have played an important part in the development of the crypto industry as it provides a less volatile asset to trade cryptocurrencies without having to interact directly with fiat which requires rigorous compliance requirements. Decentralization is the primary value proposition of distributed ledger technologies and what many believe makes them a highly sought technology and sets them apart from the many technological breakthroughs in the last decade. For the first time in human history, the human race is able to encapsulate “Truth” in technology. Immutable, final and transparent, enabling a risk-free peer-to-peer exchange of value. A technology that afforded us an unparalleled opportunity for equality and freedom. For more information about Newdex please follow its official links below: Website: https://newdex.io/Twitter:https://twitter.com/NewdexOfficialMedium:https://medium.com/@marketing_27690
TomoChain - Binance AMA Recap - In case you missed it!
TomoChain’s AMA with Binance was recently held on Oct. 19th, 2019 with CEO Long Vuong sharing all the latest updates about TomoChain’s products and potential future projects. https://preview.redd.it/yz3h0tqgc2u31.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1a888e829057030e17ea4cb67828afb2455c6811 *** Below is a brief recap of what happened during the AMA *** Segment 1: Richie from Binance asked Long Vuong 5 questions. Richie: Among different blockchains and cryptocurrency projects, what are some key features that set TomoChain aside? What does TomoChain have that other projects don’t? Long: Some key features which set TomooChain aside include:
PoSV consensus: TomoChain uses an innovative consensus method called POSv (Proof of Stake Voting) which gives an incentive to all TomoChain token-holders to play an active part in staking across a network of 150 high-quality masternodes, and to monitor their performance and governance actively. Our staking-governance Dapp, TomoMaster, is recognized as one of the leading staking platforms in the industry. With our PoSV consensus protocol, TomoChain provides:
/ At least 2k TPS while still enhancing security through Double Validation. / 2-second block-time and transaction confirmed within almost 4-second. / Significantly improvement of user experiences and adoption of blockchain.
Double Validation and Randomization: Strengthens Tomochain’s security, reduces fork and nothing-at-stake attacks, and makes TomoChain unique among other Proof-of-Stake-based blockchains.
EVM compatible: Every Ethereum smart contract can be effectively run with almost instant transaction confirmation. Porting time:
/ From Ethereum to TomoChain. / 2From Tron to TomoChain: 8h.
Rich set of our own products: that enable a variety of platforms for end-users to interact seamlessly with blockchain technology, including TomoWallet, TomoMaster, TomoScan, TomoZ, TomoX.
/ TomoZ — Zero Friction Protocol — the first on-chain protocol that offers the ability for any user to pay transaction fees with the same token the user is holding. / TomoX — a secure and efficient relayer-masternode decentralized cryptocurrency exchange protocol that empowers a diverse system of relayers, MM providers, and independent projects to work together.
Privacy: Lastly, token privacy on TomoChain will be forth-coming in 2020, and the details for implementation will be revealed in due course.
Richie:Since mainnet’s launch 10 months ago, what are some key achievements for TomoChain? And does TomoChain has any plans to keep up with this productivity in the future? Long: Since our mainnet launch, TomoChain has continuously built our ecosystem strong and stable, resulting in:
Being a stable chain running that can handle 2000 tx/s.
50% TOMO staked in the smart-contract for the masternode governance system.
16 active dapps build on top of TomoChain and almost 6000 monthly active users, with a variety of new games and dapps being created.
TomoZ’s mainnet launch, a protocol that allows users to pay transaction fees with their own native token without having to hold TOMO, as well as to help users create their own token in 2 minutes. After the launch, a number of token with TRC21 standards has been made through TomoIssuer.
Richie:Which area does TomoChain focus on at the moment? (DeFi, Dapps,..) and which products/projects are you developing to support it? Long: TomoChain aims to build a safe and credible DeFi system that everyone can benefit from globally, with our recent launch of TomoZ — fees by any token protocol, our decentralized exchange protocol TomoX coming in a couple of weeks, and many more projects in plan for the future. TomoChain opens up a wide playground for developers to creatively build their own dapps and games. We have an enthusiastic high-tech team that can support you with problems you may have while creating your product. TomoChain’s most recent Dappathon Competition just ended, with 9 final contestants who’ve brought a whole new gaming experience for our community. Thus, many new games are coming up on our platform, encouraging even more developers and game lovers to join. So keep an eye out to try out some of our new games! Richie:TomoChain has launched TomoZ’s mainnet in August. Can you elaborate on the product and comment on the amount of interest with individuals/businesses you’re seeing in this product? Long: TomoZ — Zero Friction Protocol — provides inroads to mainstream users who find crypto to be unnecessarily complex. It is the first on-chain protocol that offers the ability for any user to pay transaction fees with the same token that the user is holding. TomoZ removes the friction of having to hold native blockchain coins/tokens to send to other wallets or to interact with dapps. Users/customers of all businesses using our solution will have a smooth experience without even knowing that they are using the blockchain and cryptocurrency technology. Tokens issued with the TomoZ protocol follow a new standard called TRC-21 (TRC is the abbreviation of TomoChain Request for Comments). Everyone can create a TRC-21 token on TomoChain in a few clicks using TomoIssuer — a user-friendly token issuance dashboard. No need to spend thousands of USD hiring blockchain developers. For DeFi apps, TomoZ can be tailored for issuing stablecoins. Digital wallets and payment systems can be set up via TomoZ protocol very fast and cost-effectively. Richie: The testnet of your flagship product — TomoX — the DEX protocol is to be rolled out soon. What sets TomoX apart from other DEX protocols? Long: TomoX Testnet is to be launched in a couple of weeks. TomoX Protocol is our relayer-masternode decentralized cryptocurrency exchange protocol. Compared to the current state of the art DEX architecture, TomoX Protocol has quite a lot of advantages, which have been described in detail in our paper (http://bit.ly/33EgSl7), the most notable are as follows:
Performance: TomoX Protocol is integrated into the core TomoChain blockchain consensus layer, which can potentially handle many thousands of transactions per second. Furthermore, with the Relayer-Masternode architecture, the heavy computational load of the matching engine in masternodes can be substantially moved to Relayers’ local matching engine. Performance of the TomoX Protocol can therefore potentially be an improvement when compared to most of the existing DEXs.
Liquidity: This is a chicken and egg problem. Traders do not join most of the existing DEXs because there are not enough orders on these DEXs to match. With the Relayer-Masternode architecture, each relayer can focus on understanding their relevant markets and trading pairs — thus the potential for better and targeted marketing strategies to attract more traders to participate in the ecosystem.
Full decentralization: Most of the existing DEXs are semi-decentralized. TomoX Protocol, on the other hand, is fully decentralized because the order book database, matching engine and trade execution mechanism is decentralized to all masternodes. This decentralization power in TomoX can significantly reduce front-running risks that currently appear in some centralized exchanges or semi-decentralized exchanges.
Security: Centralized exchanges can have significant security issues as they centrally manage a large of amount of assets, and traders on centralized exchanges do not have control of their private keys. TomoX and non-custodial exchanges solve this problem because the users have complete control of their assets. In practice, some DEXs require traders to deposit their assets, while TomoX does not impose this requirement, and is completely non-custodial regarding user assets.
Cost: TomoChain provides near-zero transaction fees, which significantly reduces trading fees compared to most existing DEXs.
SEGMENT 2 — Long asks questions to the chat. Each question is linked with a google form, which will be accepting answers in 3 minutes. Q1: When was TomoChain listed on Binance? August 24th, 2019. Q2: Which TOMO trading pairs are available on Binance.com? TOMO/BNB, TOMO/BTC, TOMO/USDT and TOMO/USDC. Q3: What is the name of TomoChain’s consensus? PoSV — Proof of Stake Voting. Q4: Name TomoChain’s most recent product and its mainnet launching date? TomoZ — August 20th, 2019. Q5: The testnet of which TomoChain’s product will soon be launched? TomoX. SEGMENT 3 — Chat asked Long questions. 3 Rounds of questions opened up, and Long chose 5 questions from each round the answer. Below are some of the highlighted questions Long gave answers to: Q1:Vietnam has very few successful projects, what is the problem? Does TomoChain have any plans to support other projects in Vietnam and contribute to building a stronger Vietnamese community? Long: I consider TOMO and TomoChain being in a very good term right now, given that we have a strong and decentralized community of Masternodes and stakers securing the chain 24/24 every single day. Furthermore, good things take time to happen, even Bitcoin took a few years to create strong values. Comparatively, TomoChain would need more time to develop and mature, expanding our reputation and values to the world. Q2:If Ethereum figures out their scaling issues, then projects like Tomo will not be able to compete. How will you respond to it? Long: That’s no issue actually. There are other dimensions to compare that TomoChain still proves to have advantage on, such as blocktime. TomoChain has a 2 second blocktime while Ethereum’s is about 15s, which makes TomoChain more suitable for gaming and other activities that need fast interaction. Also, target audience and the community usage of the network can be very different too. Q3:Among some technology key points such as: Sidechain, Privacy, Shardchain, how far are Tomochain going in each aspects at the moment? What are your main focus in terms of technology at the moment? Long: Side-chain technology is doable (can be designed and built) but we focus on the mainchain at the moment. Sharding has some serious drawbacks as inter shard communication can break smart-contract composability and this is a very serious issue. The next major research area we are working on is privacy. Q4:TomoChain has so many outstanding features in the form of TOMO WALLET, TOMO MASTER, TOMO SCAN, etc. to name a few. But, do you have real users and partners that use your services and what marketing strategies do you have to draw new users as without marketing no matter how good the product is nobody cares? AIS-X generated its AIS token with the TRC21 standard on TomoChain. Can you elaborate more on this and its purpose? Is the number 150 high-quality masternodes fixed or dynamic? Long: We do have a variety of real users using our products on a daily basis. For example: TomoWallet has around 1000 daily active users, which mean around 1000 people open the app and do something every single day. The number has actually been quite stable for the last few months. Moreover, I feel that the crypto space is still very small, so TomoChain and other crypto and blockchain projects are trying our best to push the number of users. Of course the more the merrier. So my invitation to all of you to download the app and spend sometimes with TomoChain community :) Q5:Ethereum developers seem to be loyal (or stubborn if you prefer) to Ethereum and might wait for Ethereum to scale because I haven’t seen any major ETH dapp switching to Tomochain (or other blockchain project), so how will Tomochain persuade/attract blockchain developers (solidity developers specifically) to build on Tomochain or migrate their dapps from Eth to Tomo? Assuming that the need for higher TPS in the dapps will trigger this onboarding of developers might not work necessarily and is too passive of a strategy IMO. For example, Thundercore protocol is also EVM compatible & faster (1200 TPS) than Ethereum but solidity developers are not building there either. So what’s Tomochain/Tomoteam strategy in this regard? Long: I don’t believe in bribing or buying developers (from Ethereum or elsewhere) to build on TomoChain. It is not the way to build an authentic community. We want to build a community with real interests and determination to help grow TomoChain ecosystem. Thus, till now, we fortunately have been working with some awesome teams such as TomoSwap, PigFarm etc. Our goal is to continue to build reliable products, and increase users experience when it comes to blockchain in general, and join TomoChain specifically.
Ethereum Plasma wurde von Ethereum-Mitbegründer Vitalik Buterin und Joseph Poon vorgeschlagen. Das Konzept wurde im August 2017 als Lösung für die Skalierung der Ethereum-Blockchain entwickelt. Neben Thaddeus Dryja war Joseph Poon auch für die Konzeption des Lightning Networks verantwortlich, das eine aus dem Jahr 2015 vorgeschlagene Lösung zur Skalierung von Bitcoin ist. Auch wenn Plasma ... The Ethereum network now has more bitcoin held in reserves than the Lightning Network, according to onchain statistics. At the time of publication, Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) has close to 4,000 BTC ... Für die Smart Contracts bei Binance in der BSC kann auf die Virtual Machine auf Ethereum (ETH) zugegriffen werden, ein unter Entwicklern beliebtes und bewährtes Tool. Die BSC soll kompatibel mit der Blockchain von Ethereum werden, was auch die Möglichkeit eröffnet, BNB dezentral gegen ETH und ERC-20 Token zu handeln. Like most Bitcoin sidechains, bitcoins held on Binance Chain are used to generate BTC-pegged tokens. In this case, Bitcoin BEP2 (BTCB), which can then be traded or transferred on Binance Chain. There are just two other Bitcoin sidechains that hold in excess of $1 million in BTC. As of writing, just over 571 BTC has been locked up on the Ethereum Wrapped-BTC (WBTC) sidechain, while 415 BTC has ... Sidechains and payment channels are popular approaches to scaling cryptocurrency systems in order to increase throughput. Learn more at Binance Academy. Alice could enter the sidechain with a single Bitcoin transaction, perform hundreds of sidecoin transactions, and then exit the sidechain. As far as the Bitcoin blockchain is concerned, she has only performed two – one to enter and one to exit. Ethereum’s Plasma is similar, but has some major differences. The bitcoin community may soon have its own version of ethereum’s flagship decentralized finance (DeFi) platform. Money on Chain, a startup currently in the process of moving to Uruguay and converting into a nonprofit trust, just launched a DeFi platform based on the bitcoin sidechain Rootstock (RSK). The transition to a trust mimics MakerDAO’s Maker Foundation, […] Ryan Sean Adams crypto investor, citing the CNBC publication as a source, expressed his views on JP Morgan coin? No big deal It’s just the largest bank in the U.S. creating an entire unit for digital currencies using a private Ethereum-based Side Chain Watch the rest follow All bank ledgers are Ethereum Side Chains They just don’t know it yet. Sidechains are some of the most highly-anticipated technological improvements to bitcoin, due to the practically limitless functionality that can be enabled once they are deployed. Originally announced as a concept in 2014, sidechains are now perhaps only months away from being available on the bitcoin network. If successful, sidechains could […]
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